This study aims to determine temperature effect on nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency (kHz) biphasic stimulation (HFBS).
Materials and Methods
Frog sciatic nerve-muscle preparation was immersed in Ringer’s solution at a temperature of 15 or 20 °C. To induce muscle contractions, a bipolar cuff electrode delivered low-frequency (0.25 Hz) stimulation to the nerve. To induce nerve block, a tripolar cuff electrode was placed distal to the bipolar cuff electrode to deliver HFBS (2 or 10 kHz). A bipolar hook electrode distal to the blocking electrode was used to confirm that the nerve block occurred locally at the site of HFBS. A thread tied onto the foot was attached to a force transducer to measure the muscle contraction force.
At 15 °C, both 2- and 10-kHz HFBSs elicited an initial transient muscle contraction and then produced nerve block during the stimulation (ie, acute block), with the 10 kHz having a significantly (p < 0.001) higher acute block threshold (5.9 ± 0.8 mA peak amplitude) than the 2 kHz (1.9 ± 0.3 mA). When the temperature was increased to 20 °C, the acute block threshold for the 10-kHz HFBS was significantly (p < 0.0001) decreased from 5.2 ± 0.3 to 4.4 ± 0.2 mA, whereas the 2-kHz HFBS induced a tonic muscle contraction during the stimulation but elicited nerve block after terminating the 2-kHz HFBS (ie, poststimulation block) with an increased block duration at a higher stimulation intensity.
Temperature has an important influence on HFBS-induced nerve block. The blocking mechanisms underlying acute and poststimulation nerve blocks are likely to be very different.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- The blocking and deblocking effects of alternating currents on nerve.Am J Physiol. 1939; 125: 251-264
- The action of alternating currents upon the electrical excitability of nerve.Am J Physiol. 1939; 125: 205-215
- Two-year outcomes of vagal nerve blocking (vBloc) for the treatment of obesity in the ReCharge trial.Obes Surg. 2017; 27: 169-176
- High-frequency electrical nerve block for postamputation pain: a pilot study.Neuromodulation. 2015; 18: 197-205
- Restoring both continence and micturition after chronic spinal cord injury by pudendal neuromodulation.Exp Neurol. 2021; 340: 113658
- Response of single alpha motoneurons to high-frequency pulse trains. Firing behavior and conduction block phenomenon.Appl Neurophysiol. 1986; 49: 121-138
- Simulation analysis of conduction block in unmyelinated axons induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical currents.IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2005; 52: 1323-1332
- Mechanism of nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical currents.IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2006; 53: 2445-2454
- Influence of temperature on pudendal nerve block induced by high frequency biphasic electrical current.J Urol. 2008; 180: 1173-1178
- The effect of temperature on the electrical activity of the giant axon of the squid.J Physiol. 1949; 109: 240-249
- Voltage gating of Shaker K+ channels. The effect of temperature on ionic and gating currents.J Gen Physiol. 1998; 112: 223-242
- Thermal block of action potentials is primarily due to voltage-dependent potassium currents: a modeling study.J Neural Eng. 2019; 16036020
- Voltage-gated potassium channels are critical for infrared inhibition of action potentials: an experimental study.Neurophotonics. 2019; 6040501
- Post-stimulation block of frog sciatic nerve by high-frequency (kHz) biphasic stimulation.Med Biol Eng Comput. 2017; 55: 585-593
- Poststimulation block of pudendal nerve conduction by high-frequency (kHz) biphasic stimulation in cats.Neuromodulation. 2020; 23: 747-753
- Pudendal nerve block by low-frequency (≤1 kHz) biphasic electrical stimulation.Neuromodulation. 2021; 24: 1012-1017https://doi.org/10.1111/ner.13241
- Relationship between temperature and stimulation frequency in conduction block of amphibian myelinated axon.J Comput Neurosci. 2009; 26: 331-338
- Influence of frequency and temperature on the mechanisms of nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical current.J Comput Neurosci. 2008; 24: 195-206
- Quantitative comparisons of block thresholds and onset responses for charge-balanced kilohertz frequency waveforms.J Neural Eng. 2020; 17046048
- Non-monotonic kilohertz frequency neural block thresholds arise from amplitude- and frequency-dependent charge imbalance.Sci Rep. 2021; 11: 5077
- Model analysis of post-stimulation effect on axonal conduction and block.IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2021; 68: 2974-2985https://doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2021.3057522
- Mechanisms underlying poststimulation block induced by high-frequency biphasic stimulation.Neuromodulation. 2023; 26: 577-588
Published online: December 18, 2021
Accepted: October 12, 2021
Received in revised form: September 5, 2021
Received: June 21, 2021
Source(s) of financial support: This study is funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (grant number R01NS109198).
Conflict of Interest: Changfeng Tai is an inventor of a patent application related to this study. The remaining authors reported no conflict of interest.
© 2021 International Neuromodulation Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.